Everyone needs to know how human papillomavirus is transmitted. More than half of the world's population is already infected with the papillomavirus. HPV is a special microorganism that is able to multiply in epithelial cells and prevent them from dividing. It is more often activated in the body in women. Are carriers of the virus human and what are the ways it is transmitted? Only by getting complete information about the ways in which the virus is transmitted can you warn yourself and your loved ones of the infection. The main source of infection is the HPV virus.
Among the mechanisms that can be infected under the influence of:
- vertical (during childbirth).
The implementation of the contact mechanism is carried out through sexual and contact-domestic means. Thus, HPV can be transmitted in the following ways:
- shake hands and kiss;
- use of other people's hygiene products, including razors, detergents, soaps, towels and cosmetics;
- wear clothing that carries the infection;
- visit public baths, saunas and swimming pools.
Oncogenic types of the virus are sexually transmitted. The risk of infection increases many times in people who are naughty among their partners. The more often they change, the higher the risk of infection, and you can't be sure of your safety even with a condom.
You can also be exposed to homosexual intercourse, as it is characterized by damage to the epithelium and mucous membranes. And a condom doesn't really help in this situation. The presence of warts on a sexual partner's body also indicates the possibility of HPV being acquired through microtrauma in the body.
Pregnant women with HPV should be aware of the possibility of infecting the baby when it passes through the birth canal.
Infection occurs only in the presence of characteristic growths in the genital area and cervix. At the same time, papillomavirus infection in a child manifests itself in the form of growths in the larynx, which is especially dangerous. The baby will have difficulty breathing and eating, and may choke.
Favorable conditions for infection
Contact with an HPV carrier does not necessarily mean an infection. Papillomavirus can enter the body only if there are lesions on the skin and mucous membranes. Therefore, it is easier to become infected with HPV if it is on the skin:
It should be borne in mind that during sexual intercourse, various types of skin lesions can occur in the tissues adjacent to the genitals. Infection can also occur when using a condom.
The mucosa is uninsured against infection by a depressed immune system. The appearance of papillomas and warts in the genital area is often triggered by the presence of other infections in the body. If such growths are found, treatment should be given not only by the HPV carrier but also by his partner.
In women, disruption of the vaginal and even intestinal microflora in both sexes can lead to a decrease in immunity, and therefore the papillomavirus enters the body more easily.
Even if the papillomavirus infection is already in the body, you will not notice any of its manifestations. There is no need to see growths in the body. Often papillomavirus occurs in the latent stage and completely without symptoms.
HPV can be compared to the herpes virus, which is also present in the body of the majority of the population, but the characteristic symptoms in the body are not always indicative of its presence. With a strong immune system, papillomavirus may not multiply.
It only begins to intensify under conditions conducive to the development of HPV infection. Active reproduction of virions takes place in the nuclei of cells, which leads to disruption of cell proliferation. Using human cells, the papillomavirus creates copies of itself. As a result, uncontrolled cell proliferation and the appearance of neoplasms in the body.
Conditions that cause the activation of the virus:
- exacerbation of any disease that can be called chronic;
- recent infectious diseases;
- presence of intestinal infection;
- congenital immune deficiency;
- diet and non-compliance with the diet;
- to work in production belonging to the harmful category;
- often stressful situations.
Activation of the virus can be caused by various factors that more or less affect the state of the immune system. Neoplasms appear in the body only with depressed immunity.
There are a number of preventive measures, so human papillomavirus infection is more likely to enter the body.
- all skin lesions should be treated with antiseptics;
- use only personal hygiene products;
- rubber slippers should be used in public saunas, baths and swimming pools;
- any disease should be treated in a timely manner;
- loyalty to a reliable sexual partner;
- use a condom for any sexual intercourse. Although this does not guarantee safety, papillomavirus is less likely to enter the body of both women and men through condoms;
- regular exercise;
- hardening of the body;
- to adhere to sleep and nutrition.
Such precautions should be taken not only to prevent HPV infection, but also to prevent other sexually transmitted infections. Condoms guarantee protection against many diseases that cause HPV virus activation.
In the presence of a virus in the body of pregnant women and its manifestations in the genital area, it is necessary to thoroughly examine and remove such neoplasms. If there are papillomas in the genitals, a caesarean section is recommended for a woman to prevent infection of the baby while passing through the birth canal.
There is a special vaccine against high oncogenic strains of viruses, which is primarily recommended for women and adolescents under 26 years of age. Even if the HPV carrier is self-vaccinated, his immunity is significantly improved and the virus enters a passive phase.
At the same time, it should be noted that the virus does not disappear from the body and, accordingly, the person remains a carrier of the infection. For safety, she should use a condom during sexual intercourse and use only personal hygiene items.
Women are more prone to such manifestations of HPV as growth in the body. Their immune system is very weak and does not have good resistance to the virus. But at the same time, there is no reason to believe that a person is not worried about the virus. It is also a source of infection.
Any neoplasm in the body cannot be removed independently. All actions should be performed only under the supervision of the attending physician.
Infection can be prevented. It is enough to follow personal hygiene, use a condom during sex, watch your skin carefully and pay attention to the presence of growths on the body of your loved ones.